Ventolin Inhalers

- Late Gestational Exposure to the Fungicide Prochloraz: INTRODUCTION(1)


Prochloraz (1-{ Af-propyl-Af-[2-(2,4,6-trichlorophenoxy) ethyl]} carbamoylimidazole), or PZ, is a broad-spectrum fungicide containing an imidazole moiety that has P450-dependent demethylase activity shared by many other imidazole and imidazole-like fungicides that inhibits the conversion of lanosterol to ergosterol in fungi. Imidazole fungicides can also affect activities of several P450-dependent enzymes in vertebrates, including aromatase, 170-hydroxylase, and 17,20 lyase activity.

Although imidazoles are known to inhibit P450 enzyme activity in several systems, including rat fetal gonads, the developmental toxicity and multigenerational studies of PZ used in its risk assessment did not detect malformations of androgen-dependent tissues in fetal or F1 males. Prior studies demonstrate that PZ is rapidly cleared. Approximately 99% of PZ administered orally to adult rats (at up to 250 mg/kg of body weight [BW]) is metabolized and excreted within 48 h with 2,4,6-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2,4,6-trichloro-phenoxyethanol, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol as the major metabolites.

February 13, 2014 Parturition
Tags: antiandrogen environment fungicide hypospadias male reproductive tract