Dystocia and pup retention during delivery likely accounted for most of the pup mortality in the current study. The ability to target multiple steroidogenic enzymes may allow PZ to simultaneously affect androgen- and estrogen-related physiology, and possible antiestrogenic activity of PZ has also been hypothesized to be mediated through P450 enzymes catalyzing estradiol hydroxylation.
The dose-related differences in female neonatal anogenital distances observed in both experiments in the current study could result from several endocrine mechanisms and could be interpreted as an indication of androgen-induced masculinization. However, no other treatment-related differences were found in infant or adult females to support this hypothesis. In addition, the differences in female anogenital distance were not permanent. If masculinized by an androgen, females would have been expected to show reduced areolas and nipple numbers; inhibited development of the vaginal orifice, cleft phallus, or the presence of prostate or other male sex accessory tissue, none of which were observed.