The syndrome of male reproductive tract malformations produced by phthalates such as DEHP, DBP, and BBP includes high incidences of testicular, epididymal, and gubernacular agenesis, malformations that did not occur with PZ treatment in the current study.
The malformation profile of PZ-exposed males more closely resembles the profile observed with males exposed in utero to low doses of flutamide or intermediate doses of vinclozolin or procymidone.
Some effects (e.g., cryptorchidism) caused by higher doses of these three compounds were not observed in the current study with PZ. Taken together, these results suggest that high doses of PZ produce a profile of effects that closely resembles the profile produced by lower doses of flutamide. Flutamide is more potent at producing malformations than PZ, and administration of in utero PZ doses high enough to match the effects of flutamide appears unlikely to be achievable given the dystocia and high pup mortality associated with the 250 and 500 mg/kg-BW per day PZ doses in the current study. The profile observed with PZ at 250 mg/kg-BW per day also is similar to that observed in male rat offspring exposed to vinclozolin at 50 mg/kg-BW per day or procymidone at 100 mg/kg-BW per day, in which androgen-dependent organ weight reductions and associated levels of hypospadias and nipple retention are similar among the three chemicals.